Documents on energy and the environment
available on the web site of EFN ™

© Photo IBC / Bouliac

EFN™ documents available in English

Exhaustive list of all documents available in all languages
(direct access to the folders through each language, this way to search for documents is less user-friendly, but more complete)

The language of each document is indicated by a flag such as UK flag or French flag. Photos, in JPG format, are signaled by the pictogram Camera symbol. Some documents may be available in one (or several) language(s) other than that (or those) indicated below. To access the complete list of documents available in all languages, enter through national flags on the home page then click on "documents" or refer to the exhaustive list above.


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Access, see and search for : all nuclear power plants around the world with Google Earth here.


Generalities on nuclear energy

General information on energy (Michel Lung/EFN, DOC format, 108 ko in French, 176 ko in English)

  Various uses of radioactivity (magazine "Alternatives", p10-11, N°3, July 2003, PDF format, English version: 532 ko, French version: 384 ko)

General information on energy (ENC, September 2002, HTML format, 24 ko, or DOC format 100 ko).

Nuclear energy in simple words - EFN's answers to student's questions (Michel Noraz/EFN, June 2000, HTML format 12 ko, or DOC format 20 ko)

Nuclear Energy seen from the point of view of an Environmentalist in France (presentation given by Bruno Comby in Berlin, May 2003, PPT format, 5.7 Mo)

Such a Beautiful Planet... admire our Earth seen from outer space at night

The benefits from nuclear energy (Pr Bernard Cohen/EFN, HTML format, 28 ko, in Spanish)

www.greenfacts.org: clear, accessible, neutral, unbiased scientific facts on health and the environment (HTML format)

Turning Silk Purses into Sows' Ears (EFN-USA, 2003, HTML format, 4 ko).

Nuclear Power: Environmental Comparisons and Perspective (John K. Sutherland, October 2003, HTML format, 92ko)

Various infos on nuclear energy by John Sutherland (canadian researcher) (John K. Sutherland, HTML format)

Text by Pr James Lovelock, historically the leading figure of the environmental movement (preface to B. Comby's book) (Pr. Lovelock, <80ko, HTML format, this document is available in English, German, French and Czech)

Answers of EFN to the Green Paper of the European Commission (Bruno Comby/EFN, 2001, DOC format, 80 ko)

Statement of EFN at the Euratom Conference in Brussels in 2002 (EFN/Michel Lung, HTML format, 12 sept 02, 4 ko, English version, French version)

Radioprotection and ecology - about the protection of humans and of nature (speech by Bruno Comby, President of the XX th Congress of ATSR in Paris, 15 December 1999, HTML format, 12 ko)

Answers to an anti-nuclear student

  The nuclear fuel cycle (JPG photo, 116 ko)

A few answers to FAQ about nuclear energy (Michel Lung)

Nuclear energy is clean

Souvenirs of a pioneer of nculear energy

Energy in the world (Michel Lung and Bruno Comby)

Writing to the media

What is a steam generator ? (Areva, Technical meeting/Chalon, 2-3 July 03, PDF format, 340 ko)

General information on energy electricity and nuclear energy (Michel Karatchentzeff, 17 December 2002, PDF format, 220 ko)

Is the nuclear lobby a sneaky viper ? (Michel Lung)

Electrical heating is not an environmental disaster (Jean-Marc Jancovici, September 2001, HTML format, 16 ko)

The naturality principle, definition (B. Comby, 1995, HTML format, 4 ko)

The naturality principle (Jacques Frot/La Jaune and la Rouge, DOC format, 10 ko)

Conversion of an anti-nuclear to clean nuclear energy (Jacques Frot)

The "Nuclear booklet" by Jacky Weill

What Energy for Tomorrow ?

Nuclear Energy in a Sustainable Development Perspective - L'énergie nucléaire dans une perspective de développement durable (OECD, document PDF).

Characteristics of Nuclear Energy


Solar energy

Amount of energy received from the Sun on Earth (Bruno Comby/EFN, August 2004, HTML format, 4 ko)

About Solar Dessalinization of Sea Water: General Considerations and Orders of Magnitude (EFN/Bruno Comby, 8 august 2004, HTML format, 20 ko)

Thermodynamic Solar Energy (Bruno Rivoire/responsible of the Themis project, 24 April 2002, HTML format, 108 ko)

Thermodynamic Solar Energy (Bruno Rivoire/responsible of the Themis project, 24 April 2002, DOC format, 192 ko)

The TEMASOL solar project in Morrocco : solar electrification of 15 000 rural houses in June 2005 (110 000 expected) (TEMASOL/ONE Morrocco, February 2005, PDF format, 220 ko)


Wind energy

Video of a self-exploding windmill (Daily Motion video, 1st March 2008)

Tilting against Windmills (John Dyson/Reader's Digest, August 2003, PDF format, 128 ko) - this document is available in English and German,

A History Professor's impressions about Modern Windmills (Niall Ferguson, July 2004, HTML format, 12 ko)

Calculation of the Power Produced by a Windmill (EFN, May 2002, HTML format, 8 ko)

Windmills just won't get it done (Lord David Howell, 23 December 2004, HTML format, 8 ko)

Comparison between the energy structure of France, Denmark and Sweden (Hervé Nifenecker/EFN, november 2003, DOC format, 64 ko)

For or Against the development of huge windfarms (Jean-Marc Wallut and Jean-Louis Bal/ADEME, November 2002, HTML format, 48 ko)

Eoliennes, des danseuses bien ecombrantes (Alain de Tonnac/EFN, 12 September 2004, DOC format, 44 ko)

Disturbance of electromagnetic signals by windmills (2002 report of the Agence Nationale des Fréquences, demanded by the Industry Ministry, 2002, PDF format, 276 ko)

Projet de loi adopté par le Sénat relatif aux permis de construire pour l'implantation d'aérogénérateurs (Christian Poncelet, 24 October 2002, HTML format, 12ko)

  Un agriculteur écolo se paie la plus grande éolienne de France - 1500 MW (www.batiactu.com, 3 March 2003, HTML format, 12 ko)

  Pamphlet contre les sites éoliens industriels - la bouillie culturelle and l'écologiquement correct (Regis Cogranne, February 2003, HTML format, 8 ko)

  Eoliennes bruyantes, vent de fronde (Ouest France/Hélène Perraudeau, 23 October 2003, DOC format, 44 ko)

  Réglementation des éoliennes en France (P. Boiron, 7 November 2003, HTML format, 3 ko)

Projet de loi adopté par le Sénat relatif aux permis de construire pour l'implantation d'aérogénérateurs (Christian Poncelet, 24 October 2002, HTML format, 12ko)

  For or Against the development of wind farms (Jean-Marc Wallut and Jean-Louis Bal de l'ADEME, November 2002, HTML format, 48 ko)

  A farmer buys the largest windmill in France - 1500 MW (www.batiactu.com, 3 March 2003, HTML format, 12 ko)

  Pamphlet against industrial wind farms - politically correct soup (Regis Cogranne, February 2003, HTML format, 8 ko)

  Broken windmills in Dunkerque (two photos - rights reserved - and explanations about the accident of 20 March 2004, DOC format, 736 ko)

  Photos, a video and explanations on the wind farm at Donzere (B. Comby, 2 June 2004, HTML format, over 40 photos, a video and several pages of explanations on this wind farm of 6 wind generators of 600 kW each, formats JPG and AVI).

  Photos d'éoliennes (EFN/B. Comby, 1996-2004, format .JPG).


Geothermal energy

  L'énergie geothermique: une énergie propre à développer davantage (magazine "Alternatives", p4-9, July 2003, PDF format, 696 ko, version anglaise: 500 ko)

La Terre, Source de chaleur (ARENE Ile de France, en collaboration avec l'ADEME and le BRGM, 1988, HTML format, 14 ko)


The greenhouse effect

The Great Global Experiment (Jonathan Shaw/Harvard Magazine, nov/dec 2002, HTML format, 44 ko)

The Ocean Carbon Cycle (Jonathan Shaw/Harvard Magazine, nov/dec 2002, HTML format, 16 ko)

Problems with the Kyoto Protocol (Jonathan Shaw/Harvard Magazine, nov/dec 2002, HTML format, 16 ko)

Canada, Kyoto and global warming - the "fatal conceit" of Kyoto - subsidizing idealized future technologies is a waste of money (Kenneth Green/Toronto Star, April 25th 2004, HTML format, 8 ko)

The China Project (Jonathan Shaw/Harvard Magazine, nov/dec 2002, HTML format, 16 ko)

Relative contributions of H2O, CO2 and O3 to the greenhouse effect (EFN based on Ramanathan and Coakley, Rev. Geophys and Space Phys., 1978, HTML format, 4 ko)

CO2, CH4, other Greenhouse Gases, and their Contribution to the Greenhouse Effect in the Atmosphere (EFN, dec 2004, HTML format, 12 ko, also available in French)

CO2 emissions of France with and without nuclear energy between 1973 and 2005 (conference in Rocquencourt by G. Vendryes, PPT format, February 2002, 44 ko, French version)`

Site www.climatefacts.: des informations scientifiques sur le changement climatique (HTML format)

Climate change: the Science isn't settled (James Schlesinger/Washington Post, July 7, 2003, HTML format, 8 ko)

The Cooling World (about the problem of the cooling climate in 1975) (Peter Gwynne/Newsweek, 28 April 1975, PDF format, 296 ko)

Climate modelization - free 4D software for climate modelization (Columbia University and NASA., 29 June 2005, HTML format)

Key facts about nuclear energy and the Kyoto protocol (OECD, august 2002, PDF format, 236 ko, also available in French)

Communication of EFN at the World Summit in Johannesbourg (Jacques Frot/EFN, HTML format, 24 ko, August 2002, English version, French version, Czech version)

European emissions of CO2 would be one third higher without nuclear energy - Sans énergie nucléaire les émissions européennes de CO2 seraient supérieures d'un tiers aux émissions actuelles (OECD-NEA, 29 July 2002, HTML format, 4 ko)

CO2 emissions of some countries - Emissions de CO2 des principaux pays (EFN, 1997, HTML format, 4 ko)

Nuclear Energy Can Avoid Global Warming, Ecologist Says (NEI - Insight front page story, July 2004, PDF format, 156 ko)

World historical GDP per capita since 3000 years (to be compared to average world temperatures) (Lahererre, March 2005, PDF format, 28 ko)

Maîtriser les émissions de gaz à effet de serre: quels instruments économiques ? (rapport du Sénat)

Greenhouse effect: Jean-Marc Jancovici's web site (independent expert)

CO2 sequestration

Calcul and comparaison de la quantité de CO2 émise par le secteur des transports and évitée par la production d'électricité nucléaire en France (EFN, 2002, HTML format, 8 ko)

Un point de vue sur le nucléaire (Riskassur, le magazine des risques and des assurances, JPG format, August 2002, 8 ko)

Greenhouse effect: should electricity replace gasoline ? (André Salaun/Revue "Naturellement" n°71, JPG format, 2002, 20 ko)


Efficiency and saving energy

Kyoto in the kitchen: how to save energy in your own home (Martin O'Malley and Justin Thompson, CBC News Online, HTML format, 8 ko)



Electric vehicles: private and professional vehicles (ElectricTransport Division EDF, 2002, PDF format, 2,3 Mo)

Electric cars and batteries (synthetic document, 2004, HTML format, 16 ko)


Oil reserves

The Oil Crisis (www.oilcrisis.com, HTML format)

Oil Production Forecasts in OPEC and Non-OPEC Countries - Depletion Rates and Production Peaks (PFC Energy, September 2004, PDF format, 376 ko)

Oil Firms Turn to Tar (International Herald Tribune, 1st September 2004, HTML format)

Growing Gap Between Oil Discovery and Consumption (ODAC - Oil Depletion Analysis Center, DOC format, 364 ko)

How much oil do we still have ? (Gordon J. Aubrecht, PDF format, 324 ko)

A Reality Check on the World's Oil Supply and Demand: are the Current Perceptions of Weak Demand and Ample Excess Capacity Correct ? (Matthew R. Simmons, Canadian Energy Research Institute, January 2002, PDF format, 112 ko)

Peak Oil and other Peaks (Jean Laherrere, October 2005, format PDF, 3.3 Mo)

Oil Shale Review : not much future (Jean Laherrere, August 2005, format PDF, 564 ko)

The Oil Era will soon come to an end, are we ready ? (Bruno Comby/EFN, contribution to the National Debate on Energy, 26 February 2003, HTML format, 12 ko)

Evolution of the cost of oil between 1970 and 2002 (IFP, 2002, PPT format, 40 ko)

Letter of 20 December 2002: world oil reserves of 110 Gtoe are used at the rhythm of 5.4 Gtoe per year (avaluation 2030) (Jean Bergeal, December 2002, HTML format, 4 ko)

The future of oil and natural gas (Jacques Frot/EFN, contribution to the National Debate on Energy, January 2003, HTML format, 8 ko)


Chemical pollution

Environmental pollutions by automobiles (Report of the French Senate)


Radiation and radioactivity used to have a positive reputation in Europe in the fist half of the XXth century

Example of a commercial advertisement for a radioactive drink (atomic soda)


Information on energy country-by-country (PDF)

Intro and summary - Energy in the World - Europe of 15 - Countries of the OECD other than Europe of 15 - North America - Latin America - Middle East - Central Europe - CEI - Asia - Africa
(European Commission)


Information on energy country-by-country (EXCEL)

Europe (15) - Iceland - Norway - Switzerland - North America - Latin America - Middle East - Central Europe - Baltic Countries - CEI - Asia - Africa
(European Commission)

List of nuclear reactors and installations in the world and in each country (SCOR/JYC, April 2003, format XLS, 256 ko)


Information on energy in the world (other formats, various documents, by country)

Europe: pie-chart of electricity-production methods in Europe (International Energy Agency, 2001, JPG format, 40 ko)

Netherlands: the situation at Borssele: ruling out nuclear energy is not an option any more (Source Jan Diekman, December 2002, HTML format, 20 ko)

Energy in India: a few figures - energy consumption per inhabitant 15 times less than in Europe (Michel Lung, 10 nov 99, DOC format, 8 ko)

Sweden: a largely pro-nuclear country (Bulletin ASPEA, HTML format, 4 ko, also available in French version)

Nuclear Energy in Russia (French Embassy in Moscow, october 2004, DOC format, 1 Mo)

USA: Reliable, Affordable and Environmentally Sound Energy for America's Future (National Energy Policy Development Group/White House, 2002, PDF format, 2.5 Mbytes)

  Belgium/Nuclear Phaseout: no thanks ! (magazine "Alternatives", p15-16, July 2003, PDF format, 368 ko, English version: 260 ko)

Finland: letter to Santa Claus for Christmas 2002 (EFN/Finlande, HTML format, 8 ko, also available in French)

World: population by country and energy consumption per capita in each country

World: number of nuclear reactors and nuclear electricity production in each country and in the world

Africa making good use of nuclear energy: interview of the Ministre de la Recherche in Senegal (Falila Gbadamassi/Afrik.com, 28 March 2003, HTML format, 8 ko)

Energy in Australia (Energy Information Administration (EIA) http://www.eia.doe.gov/, November 2004, HTML format, 44 ko)

Nuclear Energy is viable for Australia (Ian Hore-Lacy, 28 January 2005, HTML format, 44 ko)

Belgium: Report on Energy of the Commission Ampère (this report was ordered by the Belgian Government and was superbly ignored by the next Belgian Government who took decisions contrary to the recommendations in this report by deciding to phase out nuclear energy in Belgium - the rport of the Commission Ampère in Dutch)

Belgium and Germany /Nuclear phaseout: what to think of politicians making promises to be held in 25 years from now (Bruno Comby/EFN, December 2002, HTML format, 8 ko)

Belgium/Nuclear phaseout: Open Letter of the Collectif ESPOIR to Olivier Deleuze (Collectif ESPOIR, November 2002, DOC format, 68 ko)

Belgium/Nuclear phaseout: the historical error - Lettre of Pr Berger to the Prime Minister Guy Verhofstadt (published by La Libre Belgique, 15 January 2003, HTML format 16 ko)

The energy situation in China (Michel Lung/EFN, August 2003, HTML format, 8 ko)

Nuclear news from China (French Embassy in Pekin, February 2005, PDF format, 516 ko, some articles in English, others in French)

Nuclear news from China (French Embassy in Pekin, November 2004, PDF format, 516 ko, some articles in English, others in French)

Opinion barometer about energy in France (DGEMP, June 2003, HTML format, 8 ko)

Energy in France in 2001 (Veille-Info n°30, December 2002, PDF format, 120 ko)

The place of nuclear energy in France (Veille-Info/DGEMP n°31, January 2003, PDF format, 48 ko)

Switzerland: results of the referendum in 2003 (KKG, 18 May 2003, HTML format, 4 ko)

Swedish Nuclear Energy: A Disobliging Review (Source Energy Pulse web site, September 2005, HTML format)



Photo of the reactor building in Chernobyl (1986, JPG format, 156 ko)

Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident (Pr Aurengo, 2002, .in DOC format 432 ko and in HTML format 80 ko, English version in DOC format, English version in HTML format)

Causes of the Chernobl Event (Jacques Frot/EFN, April 2001, DOC format, 120 ko, also available in French and in Japanese)

UNSCEAR report released on the XVth anniversary of the accident

Chernobyl, Bluff of the Century, (WONUC, Sept 03, HTML format)

Chernobyl: Catastrophe and Consequences, (J.T. Smith and N.A. Beresford, Springer Verlag, June 2006, HTML format)

Lessons of Chernobyl: Nuclear Energy is Safe, (Zbigniew Jaworowski, EIR, May 04, PDF format, 504 ko)

Real facts about the Chernobyl accident (United Nations/NEA, May 2004, HTML format, 4 ko)

Consequences of Tchernobyl (Jacques Pradel/RGN, DOC format, 28 ko)

Interview of Dr Anne-Flüry-Hérard, member of the UNSCEAR

Humans, Animals, and Plants in Chernobyl (Eric Voice)

Chernobyl compared to other rejections in the environment

Chernobyl cancers explained by a medical professor specialized in nuclear medicine

Who lied about the radioactive cloud of Chernobyl ?

Professor Pellerin and nuclear authorities have always said the truth about the radioactive cloud from the Chernobyl accident, but the media lied, Here's the proof: two press cuttings about Chernobyl

Chernobyl, who lies? (Jacques Dixmier, France Soir, 2 January 2003, JPG format, 4 ko) 

Can Professeur Pierre Pellerin's honesty, unjustly smashed by the media, be restored ? (Henri Lehn, July 2004, DOC format, 444 ko)

Health consequences of the Chernobyl 1986-2003 (Pr André Aurengo, January 2003, PPT format, 1,9 Mo)

Chernobyl Forum: thyroid cancers in Ukraine and Belarus (from 1986 à 2005: about 4000 cases were diagnosed, of which less than 10 have died)

Chernobyl: what health consequences ? (article La Jaune and la Rouge version html) or version Word

Les 40 catastrophes les plus meurtrières de la période 1970-2001

Implications de l'existence d'un seuil sur l'évaluation des conséquences d'un accident nucléaire (Hervé Nifenecker)

Concernant les retombées radioactives de Chernobyl à Sisteron

Carte de France du Césium en 1986

Enquête sur les conséquences sanitaires en Franche-Comté de l'accident de Chernobyl (Médecins libéraux de Franche-Comté, October 2001, HTML format, 4 ko)

Données métrologiques and évaluation des risques en France lors de l'accident de Chernobyl (26 April 1986). Mise au point historique (P. Galle, Compte-rendu de l'Académie Française des Sciences, 9 June 2003, PDF format, 476 ko)

Tel est pris qui croyait prendre: à propos du nuage qui s'arrête aux frontières and de Brigitte Simonetta, présentatrice météo sur France 3 le 29 April 1986 (M. Lung, 17 December 2003, HTML format, 8 ko)


Risks and accidents other than Chernobyl

Causes of the industrial accident at Mihama in Japan (Bruno Comby/EFN, August 10th 2004, HTML format, 24 ko)

About nuclear energy in Japan after the Mihama industrial accident - Letter to the Editor of the IHT (John Ritch/WNA/IHT, August 17th 2004, HTML format, 4 ko)

Press articles in English about the Mihama industrial accident (Japanese Press, 10-11 August 2004, JPG format, 1.1 Mo)

Comparison and hierarchy of differents risks (Pr Bernard Cohen)

Effect on Taiwanese nuclear power plants of an earthquake of magnitude 7.3 on the Richter scale (sept 99)

Health risks of energy systems expressed in Yolls (years of life lost)(NEA, format .JPG, 48 ko)

Normal Cancer Rate Found Near three Mile Island Plant (The New York Times, 2 nov 2002, HTML format, 4 ko)

The Tokaimura criticality accident - 30 Sept 99 (IAEA, Report of the Preliminary fact-finding mission, IPSN, Yomiuri Shimbun 4/11/99, Atoms in Japan December 99, WNA, HTML format, 24 ko)

Coal Kills: the death toll is increasing in China (China Daily, 19 September 03, HTML format, 4 ko)

What becomes of nuclear risk assessment in light of radiation hormesis ? (Jerry Cuttler, July 2004, DOC format, 160 ko)

Dose-effect relationships and estimation of the carcinogenic effects of low doses of ionizing radiation (Aurengo/French National Academy of Medicine, March 6th, 2005, format HTML, 16 ko for the short version, click here for the complete text of 64 pages in WORD format, 360 ko)

Accidents at Work Kill 350 000 Workers Per Year (1000 per day) (Newsday/Neidi Lee-Sing Rojas, August 2004, HTML format, 16 ko)

Principaux rejets historiques de radioactivité dans l'environnement

La rupture du barrage de Malpasset le 2 December 1959 (423 morts)

Les 40 catastrophes les plus meurtrières de la période 1970-2001

Les risques géopolitiques liés au pétrole and au gaz naturel sont gigantesques (IFP and Jacques Frot/EFN,December 2000, DOC format, 636 ko)

Les principes de la sûreté nucléaire (sympathisant EFN, March 2003, HTML format, 32 ko)


Fast neutron reactors

Le Forum international GENERATION IV: 3 des 6 concepts de réacteurs nucléaires du futur sont des réacteurs à neutrons rapides (EFN, decembre 2002, PPT format, 236 ko)

Breeder Reactors: a Renewable Energy Source (Bernard L. Cohen, published by the American Journal of Physics, June 1983, TIF format, 236 ko)

Optimisation of the CO2 cooled fast reactor for plutonium and minor actinide management (J.T. MURGATROYD and al., PDF format, 140 ko)

Révélations fracassantes en May 2003 concernant l'attentat anti-Superphénix de 1982: comment des écologistes se prétendant non-violents soutenus par des services secrets and de puissants lobbies étrangers en arrivent à commettre un attentat à la roquette militaire contre un réacteur nucléaire français particulièrement propre and écologique (I&E n°274, E. Grenier, 9 May 2003, HTML format, 16 ko)

Schéma de principe de Superphénix and intérêt des réacteurs à neutrons rapide (EFN, decembre 2002, PPT format, 172 ko)

The Superphenix Adventure (Michel Lung/EFN, december 2004, DOC format, 176 ko)

Comparaison d'un réacteur à eau and d'un réacteur à neutrons rapides (Michel Lung/EFN, 10 November 1999, DOC format, 40 ko)

Question de Mr Peyrefitte and réponse de Mr Jospin concernant Superphénix (Sénat français, question du 23 October 1997 and réponse du 13 May 1999, HTML format, 20 ko)

Les avantages de Superphénix (Michel Lung/EFN, 15 May 2000, DOC format, 68 ko)

Le lourd dossier Superphénix (Michel Lung/EFN, 15 May 2000, DOC format, 84 ko or HTML format 20 ko)

Sodium and réacteurs à neutrons rapides (Jean Moreau, 7 January 2002, DOC format, 2,8 Mo)

Reflexions_sur Superphénix (Jean Moreau, 7 January 2002, DOC format, 112 ko)

Pour une relance des réacteurs surgénérateurs refroidis au sodium (Didier Costes, contribution au débat National sur les Energies, 11 April 2003, HTML format, 20 ko)

A propos des feux de sodium (Jacques Gollion/Robert Baschwitz, 19 May 2003, HTML format, 4 ko)


High temperature, fast neutrons, and other new reactors

Let a thousand Reactors Bloom in China (Spencer Reiss/wired.com, September 2004, HTML format, 50 ko)

A small scale nuclear power plant for new markets (60 MWth, 23 MWe) (Aliki Van Heek, October 2002, PDF format, 116 ko)

Lead-Bismuth Cooled Fast Neutron Reactors (Zrodnikov & al, 27 illustrated pages, 2002, DOC format, 2.1 Mo)

GENERATION IV: presentation of the 6 concepts of future nuclear reactors (EFN, december 2002, PPT format, 236 ko)

Small nuclear reactors of 10 MW for Alaska (Insight, July 2004, PDF format, 240 ko)

Romawa and NEREUS - A Naturally safe, Efficient, nuclear Reactor, Easy to operate, Ultimately simple and Small (Romawa.nl/Gulian Crommelin's web site)

Pebble-Bed PBMR reactor in South Africa: "Small_is_beautiful" (Insight, October 1999, DOC format, 12 ko)

Schéma d'un boulet de PBMR (ENC 2002, Proceedings, September 2002, format .JPG, 144 ko)

Photos of EFN visiting the JAERI's high temperature reactor in Japan, the world's most advanced prototype of high temperature reactor (50 MW thermal) (EFN, April 2002, 14 photos, JPG format, 40 ko to 724 ko)

Coal that doesn't burn: test trying to burn a piece of graphite used in HTR (contrary to the graphite used at Chernobyl, the graphite used in HTR doesn't burn even in the worst-case accident). Test n°1, Test n°2 (test made and photos taken by EFN in Japan, April 2002, JPG format, respectively 340 ko and 724 ko)

Nuclear reactors of the future (Michel Lung/EFN, November 2001, DOC format, 680 ko)

Why the construction of an EPR in France is urgent (Bruno Comby/EFN, June 2005, DOC format, 168 ko)

Schedule for the deployment of the EPR in France (Bruno Comby/EFN, updated in April 2005, HTML format, 4 ko)

EPR, industrial project (Bruno Comby/EFN, June 2005, DOC format, 156 ko)

EPR and energy policy (Bruno Comby/EFN, June 2005, DOC format, 196 ko)

EPR, electrical production unit (Bruno Comby/EFN, June 2005, DOC format, 76 ko)

EPR: controlling risks (Bruno Comby/EFN, June 2005, DOC format, 144 ko)

EPR: direct and indirect costs (Bruno Comby/EFN, June 2005, DOC format, 20 ko)

EPR: decision of the public debatc (CNDP, 1st December 2004, HTML format, 8 ko)

Presentation of the EPR project in Flamanville by EDF (source: EDF/CNDP, July 2005, PDF format, 1,4 Mo)

Cost of the EPR (source: EDF, July 2005, JPG format, 56 ko)

Recuperation of the corium (melted core) with the EPR in case of reactor meltdown (source: EDF, July 2005, JPG format, 32 ko)

Schedule of the EPR (source: EDF, July 2005, JPG format, 116 ko)

EPR, number of persons employed (source: EDF, July 2005, JPG format, 120 ko)

Flamanville site seen with reactors 1 and 2 (in 2005) (source: EDF, July 2005, PG format, 32 ko)

Flamanville site seen with reactors 1, 2 and 3 (EPR in the future) (source: EDF, July 2005, JPG format, 44 ko)

EPR: Position of "Save the Climate" (grass root citizen's organization) (SAVE THE CLIMATE, June 2005, DOC format, 376 ko)

Presentation of the EPR (NPI, December 2000, PDF format, 564 ko)

The EPR in Finland (ANP, April 2004, PDF format, 528 ko)

New presentation of the EPR (Areva, March 2003, PDF format, 284 ko)

EPR: what energy for our future ? (Françoise Dutheil, 27 September 2003, HTML format, 4 ko)

  Nuclear Fusion: a Nice Dream, but not about to come true (Georges Vendryes/EFN, december 2003, HTML format, 8 ko)

Energy Resources for Nuclear Fission and Fusion (Georges Vendryes/EFN, september 2001, HTML format, 12 ko)


Hydrogen and future energy prospects

Scenarios with an Intensive Contribution of Nuclear Energy to Our Energy Supply (Hervé Nifenecker/EFN, December 2004, DOC format, 1 Mo)

Hydrogen and Nuclear Power - Why I am an Environmentalist FOR Nuclear Energy (Berol Robinson, January 2003, HTML format, 20 ko)

Numbers are up for hydrogen production - but a clean hydrogen economy will require a massive deployment of new nuclear power plants (Paul M. Grant/Nature, 10th July 2003, HTML format, 20 ko)

Hydrogen: the Dim Reality (Robert F. Service, "The Hydrogen Backlash," Science, 13 August 2004, HTML format, 8 ko)

The Hydrogen Hype (Joseph Romm, 3 March 2004, PDF format, 60 ko)

Iodine-sulfur hydrogen production cycle (ONRL, december 2002, PPT format, 252 ko)

Nuclear Energy, For a Clean Energy Future (John Ritch/World Energy Review, October 2003, p14-15, PDF format, 1,8 Mo)

Hydrogen Power and Energy Independence - the Future of Hydrogen in the United States (nuclear mentioned only once but in a positive manner at the very end) (EETV interview of 3 US speakers, HTML movie format, 30 minutes)

The strong dependence on oil of Occidental countries creates a constant risk of Oil war. This risk will increase as oil becomes more scarce in the coming decade. More than half of the oil consumed each year flows through the Hormuz straight controlled by Iran.

Demain Quelles énergies ? (Jacques HAMON)

La place du pétrole dans le secteur de l'énergie - Un point de vue sur les besoins et les approvisonnements en énergie à l'horizon 2050 (Pierre-René Bauquis - Institut de l'Energie, n°52, 3ème trimestre 2001, 252 ko)

Horizon 2050, l'avenir de l'énergie (Pierre-René Bauquis)

L'hydrogène pour remplacer l'essence and le gazole ? (Revue "Naturellement" n°71, by André Salaun, JPG format, 2002, 20 ko)

Bilan énergétique de la fabrication and de la combustion de l'hydrogène à partir de l'eau (Jacques Frot, HTML format, 15 February 2003, 4 ko)


Life cycle analysis - comparison of energy sources

Externalities and Energy Policy: The Life Cycle Analysis Approach (OECD/NEA, PDF format, 2,1 Mo)

Life-cycle analysis: cumulative energy requirements (CER) and energy payback periods (EPP) for the construction of various electricity production means (OECD, HTML format, 4 ko)

Quantités de matériaux requise pour la construction des moyens de production d'électricité (OECD, HTML format, 8 ko)

  L'hydrogène comme vecteur énergétique (DGEMP, PDF format, 652 ko)


Energy costs - economy

The Grandfather Economic Energy Report (Michael Hodges and Jean Laherrere, HTML format, 8 ko)

Electricity Generation costs in the United States (NEI, JPG format, 76 ko)

Electricity Generation costs in Germany (NEA/OECD, JPG format, 52 ko)

Liberalization and costs in the energy market in Italy (Paolo Fornaciari, october 2002, HTML format, 12 ko, and one JPG image: 64 ko)

Not If, But When Will the Oil Production Peak Occur ? (Register Guardian/Laherrere, 27 September 2004, HTML format, 8 ko)

Economics of nuclear energy in a liberalised market (Stephen Kidd, October 2002, WNA, HTML format, 24 ko)

Externe Study of the European Commission (European Commission, 2003, HTML format)

External Costs for Electricity Production (EC Externe Study 2003 revised edition, HTML format, 4 ko)

The Future Econoimy of Nuclear Power (University of Chicago Study, August 2004, PDF format, 3.7 Mo)

Oil depletion rates in various producing countries (PFC Consultants, 2004, JPG document, 92 ko)

Coût de production de l'électricité en France - Electricity generation costs in France (Etude Energie 2010-2020 du Commissariat Général au Plan, HTML format, 4 ko)

Coût de référence de la production électrique en France - Electricity generation costs in France (DGEMP, 9 December 2003, HTML format, 4 ko)

Coût de l'électricité EDF - Electricity generation costs of EDF (Audition de Mr Roussely à l'Assemblée Nationale, 30 July 2002, HTML format, 4 ko)

Coût de la cogénération en France = 900 millions d'Euros par an - Cogeneration costs 900 million Euros per year in France (Audition de Mr Roussely à l'Assemblée Nationale, 30 July 2002, HTML format, 4 ko)

Dépenses de R and D dans le domaine de l'énergie dans les pays développés (1996, HTML format, 8 ko)


Nuclear waste, reprocessing and dismantling

Nuclear Waste: Chasing Myths (Michel Lung, 25 April 2003, DOC format, 484 ko)

Why Hanford's NuclearWaste Cleanup Wastes Your Money (Michael Fox/21st Century, Summer 2004, PDF format, 220 ko)

Eurobarometer: poll on the perception of nuclear waste in Europe (PDF format)

Yucca Mountain Geology

An International Peer Review of the Yucca Mountain Project (OECD, PDF format)

Monitoring and surveillance of residues from the mining and milling of uranium and thorium (IAEA, 2002, PDF format, 896 ko)

 The Decommissioning and Dismantling of Nuclear Facilities (OECD, PDF format)

Reversibility and Retrievability in Geologic Disposal of Radioactive Waste (OECD, PDF format)

Spent Fuel is too valuable to be Nuclear Waste (John K. Sutherland/www.energypulse.net, June 2004, HTML format, 16 ko)

Press release of associations on nuclear waste in Bar le Duc on 26 9 05 (EFN, SFEN, CNSIF, MNLE, 26 september 2005, DOC format, 1 page, 32 ko)

Well managed nuclear waste are no danger: solutions exist, we must apply them (Bruno Comby/EFN, 20 July 2005, DOC format, 2 pages, 376 ko)(exists also in longer version of 4 pages)

Results of research projects on high-level long-lived nuclear waste in the context of the French law of 1991 (François Loos/Industry Minister, 20 June 2005, DOC format, 40 ko)

10 Questions to P. Bacher and R. Guillaumont on nuclear waste (P. Bacher and R. Guillaumont/French Academy of Technologies, 8 november 2004, DOC format, 80 ko)

Nuclear Waste (Michel Lung)

Declaration of EFN on the recycling of nuclear waste for the public hearing at La Hague (B. Comby)

Long-Lived Nuclear Waste: a Challenge for Democracy

Interview on Radio France Cherbourg on the 25 November 98

Nuclear Waste are a political problem, not a technical problem (Hervé Nifenecker, 22 February 2003, HTML format, 8 ko)

European Directive of 18 May 1981 on the recycling of nculear waste (CEE, 18 May 1981, HTML format, 4 ko)

Radioactive waste, a simple and realistic approach (Jacques Pradel/SFRP, March 2003, HTML format, 28 ko)

Radioactive Waste, a well solved problem (Jean Moreau, April 2003, HTML format, 8 ko)


Nuclear weapons

Illicit Trafficking of Weapons-Usable Nuclear Material (American Physics Society, HTML format, September 2004, 44 ko)

Consequences of atomic-bomb testing in the Pacific Ocean

North Korea does not respect the NPT (Libération/ A. Ly, 15 nov 2002, 20 ko, HTML format)


Hiroshima and Nagasaki

 Testimony of a Hiroshima Survivor - Dr Yumi Akimoto (introduction to the Japanese edition of the book "Environmentalists For Nuclear Energy") (EFN, April 2002, HTML format, also available in French)

Speach given by the President of EFN in Hiroshima in April 2002

"Environmentalists For Nuclear Energy" - presentation made by EFN in Hiroshima in April 2002 (EFN, PPT format, April 2002)

Photo of a Hiroshima Victim (Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum, photo 7 August 1945, JPG format)

All the photos of EFN in Hiroshima in April 2002 (EFN, April 2002, JPG format)


Nuclear terrorism

About a hypothetical terrorist attack on a nuclear power plant (B. Comby/EFN, 22 october 2001, HTML format, 12 ko)

Dirty Bombs, Hysteria and Misinformation (John K. Sutherland/EFN, June 2002, HTML format, 12 ko)

Targetting a Nuclear Power Plant is not easy: see this comparison of the huge size of the WTC and Pentagon Buildings, compared with the much smaller size of a Nuclear Power Plant (NEI illustration, Dec 2002, JPG format, 36 ko)

A detailed technical analysis concludes that nuclear installations would not be an attractive target for terrorists. Report No. 374 (Nov 2001) of the National Center for Public Policy Research (physicists Gerald Marsh and George Stanford, November 2001, HTML format 24 ko)

Film close up of the impact of a F4 fighter plane on a concrete block 3.6 meter thick (Sandia Laboratories, 1988, format .MPG, 1,1 Mo)

Film large view of the impact of a F4 fighter plane on a concrete block 3.6 meter thick (Sandia Laboratories, 1988, format .MPG, 2,2 Mo)

Nuclear Power Plants and Their Fuel as Terrorist Targets (Science Magazine, November 2002, PDF format, 176 ko)

Crash Impact Analyses for a Boeing 767-400 Weighing 200 tons Demonstrates Nuclear Power Plant's Structural Strength (EPRI, December 2002, PDF format, 372 ko)

  Suicide plan against a nuclear power plant (La Recherche, n°355, December 2002, JPG format, 300 ko).

Study of the Impact of an Aircraft Crash on a Nuclear Power Plant (NEI, December 2002, DOC format, 688 ko)

  Incidents and major risks in civilian nuclear energy (Michel Lung, June 2002, DOC format, 168 ko)

  Terrorism and nuclear power plants: a much exagerrated risk (Agence Science Presse, 23 September 2002, HTML format, 24 ko)

  Impact of a F4 fighter plane of 33 tonnes on a concrete block 3,6 meter thick (EFN, 27 nov 2002, HTML format, 16 ko + photos and films of Sandia National Laboratories)


Radiation and health/hormesis

Toxicity of Becquerels (Source Jacques Pradel,/SFRP, 2002, HTML format, 4 ko, French version)

A little Poison can be good for you (Fortune, 23 June 2003, HTML format, 30 ko)

Low-dose Health Effects of Ionising Radiation (WNA, March 2005, PDF format, 84 ko)

Hormesis: toxicology rethinks its central belief (Edward J. Calabrese, Nature/volume 421, 13 February 2003, PDF format, 72 ko)

Longevity is the most appropriate measure of health effects of radiation (Pr John R. Cameron, April 2003,published in BJR-2003, HTML format, 12 ko)

Longevity is the best measure of health effects of radiation (Pr John R. Cameron, April 2003, Presentation given to the Florida chapter of the Health and Physics Society, PPT format, 96 ko)

The true health effects of radiation (Y.C. Luan, July 2004, Presentation given in Moscow/Russia, PPT format, 212 ko)

Beneficial effects of radon steambaths on health in Bad-Gastein (Austria) (Bad Gastein flyer, JPG format, 384 ko)

Dose-effect relationships and estimation of the carcinogenic effects of low doses of ionizing radiation (Aurengo/French National Academy of Medicine, March 6th, 2005, format HTML, 16 ko)

What becomes of nuclear risk assessment in light of radiation hormesis ? (Jerry Cuttler, July 2004, DOC format, 160 ko)

French Academy of Medicine recommendation of 4 December 2001 (Academy of Medecine, 4 December 2001, HTML format, 44 ko)

Les faibles doses de rayons X ne seraient pas cancérogènes (Le Monde, 23 avril 2005, HTML format, 30 ko)

Low doses of raduioactivity: a revolution in radioprotection (Emmanuel Grenier /Fusion n°77, 1999, HTML format, 68 ko)

Effects on Health of Very Doses of Radioactivity (Bruno Comby, "Environmentalists For Nuclear Energy", TNR Editions, 2001, HTML format, 8 ko)

Natural Radioactivity and Public Health (Bruno Comby, HTML format, 8 ko, 12 October 2002)

The linear extrapolation of the effects of high doses of radiation to the effects of low doses has no scientific backing, says the National Academy of Medicine in July 2003 (Academy of Medecine, July 2003, PDF format, 84 ko)

Nuclear and health (Conference of Pr Arthus, PPT format, November 2002, 3,4 Mo)

Nuclear Energy: the Witch Hunt (Alvin Weinberg, 1981, HTML format, 8 ko)

Effect of low doses of radiation on health (Henri Joffre/EFN, HTML format, 120 ko)


Protection against radiation

About norms in radioprotection (Bruno Comby)

Speech of the President of EFN, Chairman of the 20th Congress of Radioprotection ATSR


Natural radioactivity

Start WebElements Table of elements - click on the element of your choice in the table (Mark Winter/University of Sheffield/United Kingdom, updated, HTML format)

Abundance of Natural Elements in Nature (Greenwood, Earnshaw, Chemistry of the Elements, Pergamon, 1984, JPG format, 40 ko)

About the Oklo Natural Uranium Reactor in Gabon (James Lovelock, source: "Ages of Gaia", HTML format, 16 ko)

Oklo, Natural Nuclear Reactor (US/DOE, 2004, HTML format, 12 ko)

Oklo, the Natural Nuclear Reactor (Frédéric Lewino/Le Point, 18 November 2004, HTML format, 4 ko)(also available in French)

Mining for Miracles - Radon cures in a Montana Gold Mine (National Geographic, vol. 205, n°1, January 2004, HTML format, page 1, 2, 3, 4)

Oil and Gas emit much more radioactivity into the North Sea than Nuclear Plants (Marina II study, European Commission/LMC Dutton & colleagues, June 2003, HTML format, 4 ko)

High background radiation areas in Ramsar, Iran (S.M. Javad Mortavazi)

Preliminary biological study of the inhabitants of Ramsar in Iran (Mortavazi & al.)

Exposure from natural radiation sources (UNSCEAR Report 2000, annex B, 74 p.)

Nuclear Reactions in the Sun are the Source of Many Energies on Earth (PDF)

The Virtual Radiation Museum - information about natural radiation and nuclear energy in general (Pr John Cameron, 2004, HTML format)

Natural Radioactivity on the beach of Espiguette in Camargue (Southern France) (Bruno Comby, source: EFN News, 11 September 2003, HTML format, 28 ko)

Photos of EFN making measurements at the beach of Espiguette (B. Comby, 15 July 2003, JPG format)

Technical study of the IPSN on the high natural radioactivity on the beaches of Camargue

Origin of Natural Radioactivity on the Beach of Espiguette in Camargue (BRGM, 28 November 2002, HTML format 28 ko)

Photos of EFN's study of high background natural radioactivity in Brazil (up to 40 microSv/h - 20 times higher than the hotest spot on the beaches of Camargue)

Guarapari is considered since several centuries as a "city of health" (Cidade da Saude in Portuguese) - leaflet from the Tourism Office of Guarapari

Radon 222, natural radioactive gas in the atmosphere

The Radon Risk

The natural Reactor at Oklo in Gabon (La Lettre du Nucléaire n°20, oct 2002, HTML format, 12 ko)

Speach on natural radioactivity

Plutonium is natural! (Jacques Pradel) (the same in DOC format)

Natural radioactivity in Kerala (India)

Should we evacuate the planet? (about natural radioactivity of the Mont Blanc Mountain) (Jacques Pradel/EFN)

Speach about polonium (Jacques Pradel)

Natural Radioactivity and Public Health (Bruno Comby/EFN, 12 October 2002, HTML format, 8 ko)

Water, natural Radioactivity and Radioactive Elements (EFN/Michel Karatchentzeff and Jacques Pradel, January 2003, PDF format, 488 ko)


Press articles and clippings

Review of the book "Environmentalists For Nuclear Energy" by the Health & Physics Society (Health & Physics, June 2002, HTML format, 4 ko).

An Environmentalist For Nuclear Energy (Teppo Tiilikainen/Suomen Kuvalethi, November 2001, HTML format, 12 ko)

Opposition to nuclear energy is shortsighted (Bruno Comby/The Canberra Times (Australie), 17 October 2002, HTML format, 12 ko)

Chernobyl, Effects on Public Health (Pr Andre Aurengo published by APS, October 2002, HTML format, 84 ko)

The Causes of the Chernobyl Event (Jacques Frot, published by the APS, 17 October 2002, HTML format, 28 ko)

Technologies for a Greenhouse Planet (Martin I. Hoffert, New York University,published in SCIENCE, volume 298, pp 981-7, 1 November 2002, PDF format, 270 ko)

Scientists say a quest for clean energy must begin now (Andrew C. Revkin in the NY Times, 1 November 2002, HTML format, 16 ko)

Green options fall short, study says: wind, solar power and tree planting won't do (Anne McIlroy in the Toronto Globe and Mail, January 2003, HTML format, 66k)

Nuclear Energy, oui, Merci ! (Michel Brem/EFN, L'Expansion n°661, March 2002, JPG format, 76 ko)

Chernobyl, Who lies? (Jacques Dixmier, France Soir, 2 January 2003, JPG format, 4 ko)


Documents about EFN

Presentation of EFN - the association in English in PDF format or in French in PDF format (to recommend the association to your friends) or in English in HTML format or in French in HTML format

Presentation of the web site: choose the English or French version and download the file in French or in Englsh, in Black or in color: FR-black FR-color EN-black EN-color (our suggestion: choose the color version if you are going to print this document on a color printer, and the black version if you are going to print this document in black)

FAQ - Frequently asked questions about EFN- answers to a student's questions (Berol Robinson - EFN correspondent, May 2003, HTML format, 8 ko)


The book "Environmentalists For Nuclear Energy"


National debate on energies in France (1st semester 2003)

In view of the decision of the French Government to buil or not a new EPR reactor, EFN has actively participated in the "National Debate on Energies" which was held during the first semester of 2003 in France, paving the road for the National Energy Law in 2004, defining the major energy orientations for France in the next 30 years.

In total, about 40 different events, expositions and lectures were organized by EFN to inform the public in this National Debate which led to the decision of constructing an EPR reactor in Normandy.



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